[nuxt.js] How I approached Theming or Whitelabel a nuxt application

This post will go through all the solutions I came up with while working on making the project of the main website from Quero Education (the product named Quero Bolsa), an ongoing project, and transform the project source to generate, not only the main site, but other three websites with different builds and a sensible API to control it all.

What is a whitelabel project?

// TODO Go read the wikipage on whitelabel.

The process

Cool, first as we were starting planning this set of changes, we had to come up with some terminologies. Each theme for the project was called a system. So the main site, being quero-bolsa, this is a system, the other ones, were like mundo-vestibular, another system, ead another system, and so on. So we had one system and wanted to make it generate 4 systems.

To not trigger the gods of SEO, I'm gonna change the names of the systems to midori, akai and aoi respectively.

Also, on the README for the project we have documented that, whenever we mention "system folder" we are referring to folder where we put system specific files.

Also, going forward on this post, I'd like to create some more terminologies to help us describe more concisely describe stuff. So, when I say "application files" I mean all the files for components, pages, utils and stuff not like the: tests, docs, deploy scripts and project configurations.

Secondly, when I say "project" I'm referring to the git managed files, basically all the source code.

The past

So, in this company, we already had one attempt at having a whitelabel project in this same website (which didn't go so well, it had a bunch of problems). But the approach was totally different. Previously we had one server which, at request, determined which system was being requested and a bunch of ifs in every file determined which system to render. We, the team working on this new version, deemed that the previous approach was bad, and we wanted to do it differently, better (in our vision).

With that in mind we began this second whitelabel attempt with some rules to help us find the paths we wanted to go with (the better ones). Those were the following (they are actually kinda obvious if you think about it, but you really have to keep it in mind):

Let's treat those as Axioms, because, why not? Also, I will be referring to those as numbers like "oh on the axiom#3 ..." just because I think it's funny. Deal with it.

How to choose which system to build

Every system has a name, right? It's a website in the end, right? So to choose which project to build we would transform the name of the website into a slug (you know? when you have the normal name like "Times New Roman" and you transform it into "times-new-roman") to use it as a global identifier across the project.

We had the development command be like npm run dev now the new command would be npm run dev midori, same thing for build command. This first argument we pass to the dev and build commands are set as environment variables which is then used to define the current executing system.

 cross-env \
PORT=3050 \
NODE_ICU_DATA=node_modules/full-icu \

This weird syntax like ${SYSTEM_NAME:=$1} means that the value for the system env var SYSTEM_NAME will be used first, but if this variable doesn't exist, the $1 will be used instead. And the $1 represents the first argument passed to the script.

How to structure the folders

Nuxt has a default/recommended folder structure, which has like pages, components, middleware and so on, which are, by default, all placed on the root folder of the project. As we wanted to be able to customize every file in the project, we decided the best decision was to move all the current application files to a sub-folder called src, this allowed us to create another folder called systems which we added sub-folders for each system to hold system specific files. This is the system folder.

├── src/
│   ├── assets/
│   ├── components/
│   ├── ... application files
│   ├── store/
│   └── utils/
├── systems/
│   ├── midori/... application files
│   ├── akai/... application files
│   └── aoi/... application files
└── ...

The routes

Ok, first problem was that: being an ongoing project, it had dozens of routes, but in the other systems we only wanted a few select routes, like, the search page one, at least at first.

The thing is that in this project we already had all the routes being configured manually via the nuxt.config.js option extendRoutes function. That being the case, we used the same big array with all the routes and added one extra property to the vue-router page object called system.

 export default [
+ systems: ['midori'],
name: 'home',
path: '/',
component: '~/pages/home',
+ systems: ['midori', 'akai'],
name: 'product-listing-page',
path: '/busca-cursos/resutados',
component: '~/pages/offer-search.vue',
// ...

While executing the extendRoutes function, we would filter out the routes that weren't allowed for the current executing system and that one problem out.

To vary meta and path and other route object values, we added a custom API, where if there was a file named router.js inside a system folder, the nuxt.config.js file was configured to load this file and override the default values for the router -- this behavior is replicated with all kinds of files. For the route list we have defined a function which is also called extendRoutes but it receives a different signature with a util function called editIfFound to perform pin point editions on the routes.

export default {
extendRoutes({ editIfFound }) {
editIfFound('product-page', (route) => {
route.meta.breadcrumb.parent = 'another-route-name';

], (route) => {
route.path = route.path.replace(/^\//, '/custom-prefix/');

The name editIfFound was originally edit, but we had some problems with tests where the function would just break because we had the route list mocked so some stuff would not be there.

Text literals changes between systems

This was one of the easier changes to do, we didn't use any i18n library on this project, so we just... adopted it, and loaded a different source of text based on the current executing system.

export const injectSystem = (systemName) => {
const messages = lodash.merge(
sharedI18n, // the default file
requireIfExists(rootDir(`systems/${systemName}/i18n.json`)) || {}

// https://i18n.nuxtjs.org/options-reference.html
return {
// ...
vueI18n: {
// ...
messages: {
'pt-BR': messages,

export default injectSystem(process.env.SYSTEM_NAME);

rootDir and requireIfExists are both util functions written in-house which are "path transformations that points to the root of the project" and "try requiring a file, and if it doesn't exist return undefined" respectively. Those two only work properly on node environment, so be aware if you want to do it similarly.

Because of the Axiom#4, we have this sharedI18n which is a file that is sitting on the src directory that sets the baseline so that a new system doesn't necessarily need to add a custom messages file. And we are merging it with the default to be able to just override the stuff we need, not the stuff that is common between systems.

Also, we don't break the Axiom#1, because this file is ran only on build time, so the browser don't download useless messages on production.

Actually changing themes for components

In our case, we already had a design system which were prepared to receive a variables.scss file with CSS custom properties that changes things like, border-radius, colors and... CSS properties 🤷.

Taking advantage of this fact and the nuxt.config.js option css to add a extra file that points to a theme.scss file in the system folder.

 const { SYSTEM_NAME } = process.env;
const globalCss = [
// ...
+ `~~/systems/${SYSTEM_NAME}/assets/theme.scss`,
// ...

export default globalCss;

And yes, this file is required, and it kinda fails the Axiom#4, but you know what? I don't care, it's just one file and the systems would be identical if this file was optional.

Customizing each system

So, as far as customization between systems go, we wanted to be able to:

And to achieve those we adopted some of the following techniques, while those following practices cover a lot of the cases we need, there are some edge cases that are kinda more challenging to explain here without context, so I'm just gonna skip it, which is unfortunate, but if you wanna here my words out of those, hit me up on... email? Wherever you feel most comfortable using.

Show and hide different components in different systems

So, we decided on using this... feature flags system that, instead of using a server to provide the flags, as we didn't necessarily need the changes on the fly, only differences between systems, we could get away with having a JSON file on each system folder with a bunch of flags.

We add it as a Vue plugins (those accessed by this.$featureFlag), as an util function, and as a "Higher Order Component" function (withFeatureFlagEnabled) function where we block a hole component with a feature flag.

Changing images between systems

To achieve this we added another Vue Plugin called $asset, which takes a key and returns an URL from another JSON file (we have a bunch of those) with the correct URL. Really, not much to say.

Change the hole design/business logic of specific components between systems

Now this, is where we added the the biggest game changer which mostly enables all of the above solutions to work properly. To override all the design/business logic of some component, the only thing you need to do, is to override the file which a given path returns. So if you have a import something from 'path/to/something', we return actually systems/aoi/path/to/something.

To achieve this, we add a custom alias with fallback, which firstly tries to search the file at the system folder and then at the src default folder, and it makes all that at build time.

const { systemName } = require('../system-current');

const AliasPlugin = require('enhanced-resolve/lib/AliasPlugin');
const path = require('path');

const rootDir = request => path.join(path.resolve(__dirname, '../../'), request || '');

const aliases = [{
name: '%system',
alias: [

const aliasesPlugin = new AliasPlugin('described-resolve', aliases, 'resolve');

module.exports = {

To make the alias work we had to choose a prefix to use in the paths, as we didn't want to enable this fallback import work by default for all imports to better describe when you read a file, which files are probably being overridden by the system.

So we went with %system as we also did't want to use @ as a prefix since it was too similar to the @scope/package syntax npm has gone for, and we didn't want people to thing that @system/components/bla.vue was a different package. We just really wanted to make it very obvious that something out of the ordinary was happening in that import.

Then we take this instance of the 'aliasesPlugin` and pass it down to webpack and it does it's magic.

import UiModal from '~/components/ui/ui-modal';
import UiAlert from '~/components/ui/ui-alert';
import TheFooter from '%system/components/the-footer';
import TheHeader from '%system/components/the-header';

/* while the file structure would be something like this:
├── src/
│ ├── components/
│ │ └── ui/... ui stuff
│ └── ...
├── systems/
│ ├── midori/components/... the-footer and the-header
│ ├── akai/components/... the-footer and the-header
│ └── aoi/components/... the-footer and the-header
└── ...

After thoughts

I'm not saying this is the bullet proof method of doing this, this is merely a report of how we managed to do it. Also, I'm increasingly hearing about how theming is coming to Nuxt 3, and I really don't know if some pre-made solution exists for Nuxt 2, and if it does, you probably should go for it instead of recreating this. At the time we had to implement these multi-system configuration for the project, we didn't find any tool that did the job for us, that's why we went for the in-house solution.